Máquinas de guerra híbrida em plataformas algorítmicas

Palavras-chave: Guerra híbrida. Máquinas de guerra. Desinformação. Polarização assimétrica. Plataformas algorítmicas.

Resumo

Guerra híbrida é tomada aqui como uma modalidade contemporânea de luta política baseada na desestabilização permanente, podendo apresentar-se como organizada horizontalmente ou comandada a partir de uma máquina de guerra. Este artigo de reflexão teórica, apoiado em pesquisa bibliográfica, propõe-se a analisar o estatuto e a atuação de máquinas de guerra híbrida em plataformas algorítmicas. Tais máquinas caracterizam-se pela excentricidade em relação à governança exercida pelas corporações nas plataformas. Elas tendem a reforçar a predisposição dos algoritmos à desinformação, o que contribui para a polarização assimétrica. Esta, por seu turno, envolve o posicionamento militante

Downloads

Não há dados estatísticos.

Biografia do Autor

Julio Cesar Lemes de Castro, Universidade de Sorocaba, Sorocaba, São Paulo, Brasil

Doutor pelo Programa de Pós-Graduação em Comunicação e Semiótica da Pontifícia Universidade Católica de São Paulo. Pesquisador de pós-doutorado no Programa de Pós-Graduação em Comunicação e Cultura da Universidade de Sorocaba – Uniso, com bolsa PNPD/CAPES. Membro do Laboratório de Teoria Social, Filosofia e Psicanálise – Latesfip-USP.

Referências

ADORNO, Theodor W. The psychological technique of Martin Luther Thomas’ radio addresses. In: ADORNO, Theodor W. Gesammelte Schriften, Band 9: Soziologische Schriften II. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp, 1975.

ALBERTS, David S.; HAYES, Richard E. Power to the edge: command… control... in the information age. Washington (DC): Center for Advanced Concepts and Technology (ACT), 2003.

ALLCOTT, Hunt; GENTZKOW, Matthew. Social media and fake news in the 2016 election. Journal of Economic Perspectives, v. 31, n. 2, p. 211-236, Spring 2017.

ALLENBY, Brad; GARREAU, Joel. Weaponized narrative: the new battlespace. Tempe: Center on the Future of War, 2017.

ALLIEZ, Éric; LAZZARATO, Maurizio. Wars and capital. Translation Ames Hodges. South Pasadena: Semiotext(e), 2018.

ARQUILLA, John; RONFELDT, David. Cyberwar is coming! Comparative Strategy, v. 12, n. 2, p. 141-165, 1993.

BARTLETT, Jamie. The digital guru who helped Donald Trump to presidency. BBC News, Aug. 13, 2017. Disponível em: <https://www.bbc.com/news/av/magazine-40852227/the-digital-guru-who-helped-donald-trump-to-the-presidency>. Acesso em: 3 ago. 2019.

BENKLER, Yochai; FARIS, Robert; ROBERTS, Hal. Network propaganda: manipulation, disinformation, and radicalization in American politics. New York: Oxford University Press, 2018.

BERNERS-LEE, Tim. The web is under threat. Join us and fight for it. Mar. 12, 2018. Disponível em: <https://webfoundation.org/2018/03/web-birthday-29/>. Acesso em: 3 ago. 2019.

BERNSTEIN, Joseph. Here’s how Breitbart and Milo smuggled white nationalism into the mainstream. BuzzFeed News, Oct. 5, 2017. Disponível em: <https://www.buzzfeednews.com/article/josephbernstein/heres-how-breitbart-and-milo-smuggled-white-nationalism>. Acesso em: 3 ago. 2019.

BLACK, Crofton; FIELDING-SMITH, Abigail. Fake news and false flags. Bureau of Investigative Journalism, Oct. 2, 2016.

BOVET, Alexandre; MAKSE, Hernán A. Influence of fake news in Twitter during the 2016 US presidential election. Nature Communications, v. 10, n. 7, p. 1-14, 2019.

BOYD, John R. A discourse on winning and losing. Montgomery: Air University Press, 2018.

BRADSHAW, Tim. Facebook’s Arab Spring role “overplayed”, says Zuckerberg. Financial Times, May 26, 2011.

CADWALLADR, Carole; GRAHAM-HARRISON, Emma. Revealed: 50 million Facebook profiles harvested for Cambridge Analytica in major data breach. The Guardian, Mar. 17, 2018.

CASTRO, Julio Cesar Lemes de. Das massas às redes: comunicação e mobilização política. In: JESUS, Eduardo; TRINDADE, Eneus; JANOTTI, Jeder; ROXO, Marcos (Org.). Reinvenção comunicacional da política: modos de habitar e desabitar o século XXI. Salvador: EDUFBA/Brasília: Compós, 2016a. p. 149-166.

CASTRO, Julio Cesar Lemes de. Social networks as dispositives of neoliberal governmentality. Journal of Media Critiques, v. 2, n. 7, p. 85-102, 2016b.

CASTRO, Julio Cesar Lemes de. A flexibilização da notícia na era dos algoritmos. In: CONGRESSO BRASILEIRO DE CIÊNCIAS DA COMUNICAÇÃO, 40., 2017, Curitiba. Anais... Curitiba: Sociedade Brasileira de Estudos Interdisciplinares da Comunicação (Intercom), 2017.

CASTRO, Julio Cesar Lemes de. Redes sociais como modelo de governança algorítmica. Matrizes, v. 12, n. 2, p. 165-191, maio/agosto de 2018.

CASTRO, Julio Cesar Lemes de. Plataformas algorítmicas: interpelação, perfilamento e performatividade. Revista Famecos, v. 26, n. 3, p. 1-24, setembro/dezembro de 2019.

CBS NEWS. Trump says his social media power key to victory. CBS News, Nov. 12, 2016. Disponível em: <https://www.cbsnews.com/news/president-elect-trump-says-social-media-played-a-key-role-in-his-victory/>. Acesso em: 3 ago. 2019.

CHANNEL 4 NEWS. Cambridge Analytica uncovered: secret filming reveals election tricks. Channel 4 News, Mar. 19, 2018. Disponível em: <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mpbeOCKZFfQ>. Acesso em: 3 ago. 2019.

CHASLOT, Guillaume. YouTube’s A.I. was divisive in the US presidential election. Medium, Nov. 27, 2016. Disponível em: <https://medium.com/the-graph/youtubes-ai-is-neutral-towards-clicks-but-is-biased-towards-people-and-ideas-3a2f643dea9a>. Acesso em: 3 ago. 2019.

CHIVVIS, Christopher S. Understanding Russian “hybrid warfare” and what can be done about it. Santa Monica: RAND Corporation, 2017.

CLAUSEWITZ, Carl von. On war. Translation Michael Howard and Peter Paret. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1984.

CONFESSORE, Nicholas; HAKIM, Danny. Data firm says ‘secret sauce’ aided Trump; many scoff. The New York Times, Mar. 6, 2017.

CULLEN, Patrick J.; REICHBORN-KJENNERUD, Erik. Understanding hybrid warfare. Brussels: Multinational Capability Development Campaign, 2017.

DAWKINS, Richard. The selfish gene. 30th anniv. ed. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2006.

DELEUZE, Gilles; GUATTARI, Félix: L’anti-Œdipe: capitalisme et schizophrénie. nouv. éd. augm. Paris: Minuit, 1973.

DELEUZE, Gilles; GUATTARI, Félix. Mille plateaux: capitalisme et schizophrénie. Paris: Minuit, 1980.

ERBSCHLOE, Michael. Social media warfare: equal weapons for all. Boca Raton: CRC Press, 2017.

FACEBOOK. Form S-1 Registration Statement, Securities and Exchange Commission. Feb. 1, 2012. Disponível em: <https://www.sec.gov/Archives/edgar/data/1326801/000119312512034517/d287954ds1.htm>. Acesso em: 3 ago. 2019.

FAN, Rui; ZHAO, Jichang; CHEN, Yan; XU, Ke. Anger is more influential than joy: sentiment correlation in Weibo. PLOS ONE, v. 9, n. 10, p. 1-8, Oct. 2014.

FESSLER, Daniel M. T.; PISOR, Anne C.; HOLBROOK, Colin. Political orientation predicts credulity regarding putative hazards. Psychological Science, v. 28, n. 5, p. 651-660, May 2017.

FLYNN, Michael T. Speech before the Young Americans for Freedom. 2016. Disponível em: <https://www.emptywheel.net/2018/03/30/michael-flynns-revolution/>. Acesso em: 3 ago. 2019.

FOUCAULT, Michel. “Il faut défendre la société”: cours au Collège de France, 1976. Paris: Gallimard/Seuil, 1997.

FOUCAULT, Michel. Naissance de la biopolitique: cours au Collège de France, 1978-1979. Paris: Gallimard/Seuil, 2004.

FOURNEY, Adam; RACZ, Miklos Z.; RANADE, Gireeja; MOBIUS, Markus; HORVITZ, Eric. Geographic and temporal trends in fake news consumption during the 2016 US presidential election. In: ACM CONFERENCE ON INFORMATION AND KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT (CIKM ‘17), 26., 2017, Singapore. Proceedings... New York: ACM, 2017. p. 2071-2074.

FREUD, Sigmund. Massenpsychologie und Ich-Analyse. In: FREUD, Sigmund. Gesammelte Werke, dreizehnter Band: Jenseits des Lustprinzips / Massenpsychologie und Ich-Analyse / Das Ich und das Es. 5. Aufl. Frankfurt am Main: S. Fischer, 1967. p. 71-161.

GERASIMOV, Valery. The value of science in prediction. Military-Industrial Kurier, Feb. 27, 2013.

GIGLIO, Mike. Inside Egypt’s Facebook revolt. Newsweek, Jan. 27, 2011.

HALPERN, Sue. How he used Facebook to win. The New York Review of Books, v. 44, n. 10, p. 59-61, Jun. 8, 2017.

HESS, Amanda. How Trump wins Twitter. Slate, Feb. 18, 2016.

HINDMAN, Matthew; BARASH, Vlad. Disinformation, “fake news” and influence campaigns on Twitter. Miami: Knight Foundation, 2018.

HOLMES, David. Whisper EIC: “It’s not important if a story’s real, the only thing that really matters is whether people click on it”. Pando, Jul. 31, 2014. Disponível em: <https://pando.com/2014/07/31/whisper-eic-its-not-important-if-a-storys-real-the-only-thing-that-really-matters-is-whether-people-click-on-it/>. Acesso em: 3 ago. 2019.

HUNTER, James Davison. Culture wars: the struggle to define America. New York: Basic Books, 1991.

JOHNSON, Samuel. The idler. London: J. Newbery, 1761. (v. 1).

JOINT CHIEFS OF STAFF. Information operations. Joint Publication 3-13. Nov. 20, 2014. Disponível em: <https://www.jcs.mil/Portals/36/Documents/Doctrine/pubs/jp3_13.pdf>. Acesso em: 3 ago. 2019.

KALDOR, Mary. New and old wars: organized violence in a global era. 3rd ed. Cambridge (UK) and Malden: Polity Press, 2012.

KANG, Cecilia; FRENKEL, Sheera. Facebook says Cambridge Analytica harvested data of up to 87 million users. The New York Times, Apr. 4, 2018.

KLEIN, Naomi. The shock doctrine: the rise of disaster capitalism. New York: Metropolitan, 2007.

KOLLANYI, Bence; HOWARD, Philip N.; WOOLLEY, Samuel C. Bots and automation over Twitter during the U.S. election. Data Memo 2016.4, Nov. 17, 2016.

KORYBKO, Andrew. Hybrid wars: the indirect adaptive approach to regime change. Moscow: Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia, 2015.

KORYBKO, Andrew. The “yellow vests” are hybrid war blowback, not “Russian agents”. Eurasia Future, Dec. 10, 2018. Disponível em: <https://eurasiafuture.com/2018/12/10/the-yellow-vests-are-hybrid-war-blowback-not-russian-agents/>. Acesso em: 3 ago. 2019.

KOZLOWSKA, Hanna. Facebook and Cambridge Analytica worked side by side at a Trump campaign office in San Antonio. Quartz, Mar. 20, 2018. Disponível em: <https://qz.com/1233579/facebook-and-cambridge-analytica-worked-side-by-side-at-a-trump-campaign-office-in-san-antonio/>. Acesso em: 3 ago. 2019.

LACLAU, Ernesto. On populist reason. London and New York: Verso, 2005.

LIND, William S.; NIGHTENGALE, Keith; SCHMITT, John F.; SUTTON, Joseph W.; WILSON, Gary I. The changing face of war: into the fourth generation. Marine Corps Gazette, p. 22-26, Oct.1989.

MAC, Ryan; WARZEL, Charlie. Congratulations, Mr. President: Zuckerberg secretly called Trump after the election. BuzzFeed News, Jul. 19, 2018. Disponível em: <https://www.buzzfeednews.com/article/ryanmac/congratulations-zuckerberg-call-trump-election-2016>. Acesso em: 3 ago. 2019.

MBEMBE, Achille. Necropolítica, seguido de Sobre el gobierno privado indirecto. Traducción Elisabeth Falomir Archambault. Santa Cruz de Tenerife: Melusina, 2011.

MURRAY, Williamson; MANSOOR, Peter R. (Ed.). Hybrid warfare: fighting complex opponents from the ancient world to the present. Cambridge (UK) and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2012.

NISSEN, Thomas Elkjer. #TheWeaponizationOfSocialMedia: @characteristics_of_contemporary_conflicts. Copenhagen: Royal Danish Defence College, 2015.

OXFORD DICTIONARIES. Word of the Year 2016 is… Nov. 2016. Disponível em: <https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/word-of-the-year/word-of-the-year-2016>. Acesso em: 3 ago. 2019.

PAUL, Christopher; MATTHEWS, Miriam. The Russian “firehose of falsehood” propaganda model. Santa Monica: RAND Corporation, 2016.

PEW RESEARCH CENTER. Election 2016: campaigns as a direct source of news. Jul. 18, 2016. Disponível em: <https://www.journalism.org/wp-content/uploads/sites/8/2016/07/PJ_2016.07.18_election-2016_FINAL.pdf>. Acesso em: 3 ago. 2019.

PROSSER, Michael B. Memetics: a growth industry in US military operations. 2006. Thesis (Master of Operational Studies) – School of Advanced Warfighting, Marine Corps University, Quantico, 2006.

REUTERS. Donald Trump: “I could shoot somebody and I wouldn’t lose any voters”. The Guardian, Jan. 24, 2016.

RID, Thomas; HECKER, Marc. War 2.0: irregular warfare in the information age. Westport and London: Praeger Security International, 2009.

ROSENBERG, Tina. Revolution U. Foreign Policy, Feb. 17, 2011.

SAAR, John. Air carrier war. Life Magazine, p. 26-31, Feb. 4, 1972.

SALINAS, Sara. Congress releases Mark Zuckerberg’s prepared testimony ahead of Wednesday’s hearing. CNBC, Apr. 10, 2018. Disponível em: <https://www.cnbc.com/2018/04/09/congress-released-mark-zuckerbergs-prepared-testimony-ahead-of-wednesdays-hearing.html>. Acesso em: 3 ago. 2019.

SCHRECKINGER, Ben. World war meme. Politico Magazine, Mar./Apr. 2017.

SHARP, Gene. From dictatorship to democracy: a conceptual framework for liberation. East Boston: Albert Einstein Institution, 2010.

SHARP, Gene. How nonviolent struggle works. East Boston: Albert Einstein Institution, 2013.

SILVERMAN, Craig. This analysis shows how viral fake election news stories outperformed real news on Facebook. BuzzFeed News, Nov. 16, 2016. Disponível em: <https://www.buzzfeednews.com/article/craigsilverman/viral-fake-election-news-outperformed-real-news-on-facebook>. Acesso em: 3 ago. 2019.

SILVERMAN, Craig; ALEXANDER, Lawrence. How teens in the Balkans are duping Trump supporters with fake news. BuzzFeed News, Nov. 3, 2016. Disponível em: <https://www.buzzfeed.com/craigsilverman/how-macedonia-became-a-global-hub-for-pro-trump-misinfo>. Acesso em: 3 ago. 2019.

SNOWDEN, Philip. Introduction. In: MOREL, E. D. Truth and the war. London: National Labour Press, 1916.

SOLON, Olivia. Facebook’s fake news: Mark Zuckerberg rejects “crazy idea” that it swayed voters. The Guardian, Nov. 11, 2016.

SUN-TZU. The art of warfare. Translation Roger T. Ames. New York: Ballantine Books, 1993.

VIRILIO, Paul; LOTRINGER, Sylvère. Pure war: twenty-five years later. Translation Mark Polizzotti. Los Angeles: Semiotext(e), 2008.

VOSOUGHI, Soroush; ROY, Deb; ARAL, Sinan. The spread of true and false news online. Science, v. 359, n. 6380, p. 1146-1151, Mar. 9, 2018.

WEBER, Thomas. Gandhi as disciple and mentor. Cambridge (UK) and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2004.

WEEDON, Jen; NULAND, William; STAMOS, Alex. Information operations and Facebook. Apr. 27, 2017. Disponível em: <https://fbnewsroomus.files.wordpress.com/2017/04/facebook-and-information-operations-v1.pdf>. Acesso em: 3 ago. 2019.

WINTER, Charlie. Media jihad: the Islamic State’s doctrine for information warfare. London: International Centre for the Study of Radicalisation and Political Violence, 2017.

YUHAS, Alan. How does Donald Trump lie? A fact checker’s final guide. The Guardian, Nov. 7, 2016.

ZUCKERBERG, Mark. “I want to respond to President Trump’s tweet…” Sep. 27, 2017. Disponível em: <https://www.facebook.com/zuck/posts/10104067130714241>. Acesso em: 3 ago. 2019.

ZUCKERBERG, Mark. A blueprint for content governance and enforcement. Nov. 15, 2018. Disponível em: <https://www.facebook.com/notes/mark-zuckerberg/a-blueprint-for-content-governance-and-enforcement/10156443129621634/>. Acesso em: 3 ago. 2019.

Publicado
03-02-2020
Como Citar
Castro, J. C. L. de. (2020). Máquinas de guerra híbrida em plataformas algorítmicas. E-Compós, 23. https://doi.org/10.30962/ec.1929
Seção
Artigos Originais